Mahatma Gandhi Biography(BAPU)

Mahatma Gandhi Biography(BAPU)

“Mahatma Gandhi”and his name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Let me spell this. Mahatma Gandhi was lovably called as “Bapu”.

Mahatma gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat. His father was a high official of Porbandar and his mother was a religious woman. Mahatma Gandhi was average in studies. But he derived the modesty from his father. His father was an idol for him. He learned morale through his mother.

Stories such Satya Harish Chandra highly influenced Gandhi to lead a principled life. At the age of 19 Mahatma Gandhi went to England to become a lawyer. After returning back to India he began to practice law at Bombay with little success. So when he received an offer to work for a firm in African country he was ready to oblige it .

At that time Mahatma Gandhi had a wife named Kasturi Bai. Gandhi went to South Africa while being in South Africa which was dominated by the Europeans.  Mahatma Gandhi often felt the discrimination by the Europeans against the Indians.On one such occasion he was forced to give up his seat in the first class compartment to a European when he refused to do so he was beaten by the courts driver and was thrown out of the train.

This proved to be the wake-up call for Mahatma Gandhi to fight against the suppression. He soon found out the way and that’s called the force of truth. With the newly found Satyagraha, Gandhiji was able to combat the discrimination against the Indians.

He encouraged them for the right to vote and taught them to be independent. He motivated the people about the human rights and spreaded the awareness for which he became a national hero.

Mahatma Gandhi Biography(BAPU)
Mahatma_Gandhi_and_Sarojini_Naidu_at_1942_AICC_Session

In 1940 while came back to India,

the country was under the rule of British. Mahatma Gandhi immediately joined the freedom movement ,the rule of our own countrymen. The Indian freedom struggle got much powerful when Gandhi joined them. In 1921 he was made the leader of Indian National Congress where he followed the principle of non-violence. In 1930 as the British government imposed tax on the salt.

Mahatma Gandhi took a 400 kilometers march to a seashore called Dandi where he made salt with his own hands to show his protest against the evil tax. He was also encouraged the people to use homemade Khadi which was made by an instrument named “Charkha“. It was not only aimed to provide self-dependence it was indeed an act of rebellion against foreign made clothes.

He showed them the way a leader should be calm,simple and humble. Though a religious person always changing the names of God and reciting Bhagavad-Gita .Mahatma Gandhi always against the social evils such as Untouchability. He always believes in equality.

Mahatma Gandhi Biography(BAPU)

With such qualities he was rightly called as “Mahatma” the Great Soul.

Whenever his ways of non-violence has not yielded the expected result, he resorted to a hunger strike inserting his own life at risk of the cause. In the year 1942 he invoked a movement called Quit India Movement. By the year 1947, the British government has enough troubles to seek in India.

So it did leave India but only after dividing it into two countries India and Pakistan. Mahatma Gandhi was happy for the independence but he was shattered as the partition was not the peaceful process. It led to the violent clashes between the Hindus and the Muslims.

Mahatma Gandhi repeatedly went to the hunger strike to restore peace among the country. On one such occasion in 1948 in New Delhi, Gandhi completed two days hunger strike where he was shot dead by a Hindu nationalist called Nathuram Godse. As Gandhiji was no to lead the nation but his principles and characters always shown the best way to follow. Gandhiji rightly called as the “Man of the Millennium”.

Mahatma Gandhi Biography(BAPU)
Gandhi_during_the_Salt_March.

Mahatma Gandhi’s Salt March,

Gandhi’s Salt March-  Many have heard Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi’s story of the salt march along the Dandi Beach. It was a great protest against the British tax on Indians for making their own salt. However, few probably know the level of Hindu-Muslim unity at play behind this story.

Gandhi’s march towards Dandi, which is at the edge of the Arabian sea, started from Ahmedabad, Gujarat in the Sabarmati Ashram on March 12, 1930. This was about 241 miles away from Dandi. He started his march with 78 people. Dandi’s water is known for its high salt levels.

This makes it an excellent location for Gandhi to have been able to make common people make their own salt en masse. Thousands joined him and offered their support for this march as he travelled and stayed in different towns on his way over to Dandi.

As he would visit these towns, he would raise the people’s awareness of many social matters including the unfair salt law. Due to his old age, however, he would not travel more than 10 miles a day. He often needed to cling to others for physical support while walking on a muddy path that his supporters covered with wooden planks for stability.

This rough Earth path, which is now the main Dandi road, led to the Dandi Beach. While travelling, he stopped in the town of Bharuch where he met Syedna Taher Saifuddin Sahib, the 51rst head of the Dawoodi Bohra Muslim community.

Saifuddin sahib was giving a sermon there.

When he heard of Mahatma Gandhi plans to travel to Dandi, he offered him a place to stay in Bharuch. The place was called Saifee Villa and its original owner’s name was Seth Sirajuddin Vasi. (This place was first made as a guesthouse for visiting the Mazar-e-Mai Saheba dargah not too far from there.

The dargah is of great significance to Bohri Muslims and attracts many visitors even today). Upon arriving there, Mahatma Gandhi stayed there for 10 days before leaving. On April 6, 1930, Gandhi broke the salt law on the Dandi beachfront.

Mahatma Gandhi Biography(BAPU)
mahatma gandhi spinnig

Mahatma Gandhi Story Year By Year,

1876- Family came to Rajkot, study in primary school, engage with Kasturba
1881- Studying at Rajkot High School.
1883- Marriage to Kasturbai.
1885- Father dies at 63 years of age
1887- Matric pass, admitted to Samaldas College of Bhavnagar, left after one session.
1888- Birth of first son went to study advocacy England in in September,

1891- After completing his studies, returned home, death mother Putalibai, started advocacy in Bombay and Rajkot.
1893- sailed to South Africa for a Case of Indian firm . where he had to face all kinds of color discrimination.
1894- Facing apartheid, stayed there and decided to do social work and advocacy, Founded “Natal Indian Congress”
1896- returned home for six months and took wife and two sons to Natal.
1899- Prepared Indian ambulance service for the British Army in the Boer War.
1901- sailed back to India with the family,
also assured Indians who were settled in South Africa that whenever they felt the need he would return.
1901- Toured the whole country, participated in the Congress session of Calcutta and opened the office of advocacy in Bombay.

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Mahatma Gandhi Biography(BAPU)
1902- returned to South Africa on the call of the Indian community there
1903- Open Office of Advocacy in Johannesburg
1904- started publication of the weekly letter ‘Indian Opinion’
1906- During the ‘zulu rebellion’, prepared Indian Ambulance Service
took a vow of Brahmacharya for life
started first “Satyagraha” campaign in Johannesburg against the Asiatic Ordinance
1907- Satyagraha against ‘Black Act’ which was for forced registration of Indians and other Asians
1908- imprisonment For the first time for the Satyagraha, in Johannesburg
Continuation of “Dand Movement”
registration certificates were burnt in the second Satyagraha, again imprisoned.

1909- June – Went to England to place the Indians aspect.
1909-November- On returning from South Africa, wrote ‘Hind-Swaraj’ (self governed indian) on Ship
1910- May – Establishment of “Tolstoy Farm” near Johannesburg
1913- Satyagraha continued against apartheid and oppressive policies
led ‘The great March’ in which 2000 Indian mine workers travel by foot from Newcastle to Natal.
1914-July Return to India From South Africa
1915- After 21 years of migration, return home in January
In May, Satyagrah Ashram was founded in Kocharab, which was established in 1917 near the Sabarmati river.
1916- Inauguration Speech at the Banaras Hindu University in February.
1917- Lead the “Champaran Satyagraha” in Bihar.

1918- February – Lead the Satyagraha of mill workers in Ahmadabad and resolved by mediation
1919- The Rulelet Bill passed in which the common rights of Indians were snatched
the first All India satyagraha was launched in protest, nationwide strike call also succeeded.
took the post of editor Engish weekly letter ‘Young India’ and Gujarati weekly ‘Navjivan’
1920- Elected president of All India Homeral League –
returned the “Kaiser-e-Hind” medal – and started second nationwide Satyagraha movement.

READ MORE-Nathuram Godse, Man who killed gandhi.

Mahatma Gandhi Biography(BAPU)
Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi shown using a spinning wheel in 1933 shortly after his release from prison.

1921- Burnt foreign textiles in Bombay.
5 days fast in Bombay against communal violence.
Extensive Disobedience Movement started
1922- Post-violent incidents of “Chauri-Chaura” debarred the mass movement.
They were prosecuted for sedition and they accepted themselves as guilty.
Judge Broomfield punished him for six years in prison.

1923- some parts of the book ‘Satyagraha in South Africa’ and autobiography were written during the imprisonment
1924- Fasts 21 days for communal unity –
elected as president of Belgaum Congress convention
1925- Decision of one year political silence.
1927- started “Bardoli satyagraha” led by Sardar Patel.

1928- Participated in the Calcutta Congress session- Call for “Purn Swaraj” (full self governance)
1929- Independence Day was announced on 26th January at the Lahore Congress Convention
the nationwide Satyagraha movement for ‘Purn Swaraj’ was started
1930- Historical Salt Satyagraha – Lead from Sabarmati to Dandi.

1931- Gandhi Irwin Pact – Travel to England for Second Round Table Council
during Return meet with the great philosopher Roma Roland
1932- Fasting in Yerwada Jail to oppose saperate constituency for untouchables
after British approval of Yerawada Pact broke fast in Gurudev’s presence.
1933- Launched weekly letter ‘Harijan’
Rename “Satyagraha Ashram” which was situated at Sabarmati bank as “Harijan ashram”
and left it for ever, started movement to oppose untouchability across the whole nation
1934- “All India Gram uddyog” union established.

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Mahatma Gandhi Biography(BAPU)
Gandhi ji with indira gandhi.

1935- Health impaired – came to Bombay for health benefits.
1936- Selection of village near Wardha which later became Sevagram Ashram.
1937- during the Untouchability Prevention Campaign Travel to South India.
1938- Visited NWFP (North-West Frontier Province) with Badshah Khan.
1939- Fasting in Rajkot – Initiation of Satyagrah campaign.
1940- Announced Personal Satyagraha – He chose Vinoba Bhave as his first personal Satyagrahi.
1942- publication of ‘Harijan’ magazine after fifteen months –
failure of Cripps mission.
The nationwide call of the “Bharat Chhodo andolan” (Quit India Movement)
It was last nationwide satyagraha under his leadership
During this, in Agaakhan palace of Poona, where his Secretary and friend Mahadev Desai was imprisoned, passed away.

1943- Fasting to overcome conflicts between Viceroy and Indian leaders
1944- 22 February – Kasturba’s death at age of 74 years in Aga Khan Palace. after 62 years of marriage
1946- Meeting with British Cabinet Mission
Peace march in 49 villages of East Bengal, where communal riots were happened
1947- Bihar visit for communal peace.
Meeting with Lord Mountbatten and Jinnah in New Delhi
opposition to country partition
Fasting and prayer to calm the riots in Calcutta
on August 15, 1947, Independence Day of the country.

On September 9, 1947, in Delhi, reached to depressed masses to console them after communal riots.
1948- The last fasting of life in the Birla House of Delhifrom January 13, for 5 days in protest of the communal violence spread all over the country Explosion in prayer meeting at Birla House on January 20, 1948
shot by Nathuram Godse on January 30 in Birla House at the time of going to the evening prayers.

 

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